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95 Need a Lift? Hail a Cab!
Need a Lift? Hail a Cab!
The taxi is a modern convenience that is easy to take for granted. Ever wonder where it came from?
Throughout history, hired transport has taken a variety of forms, including sedan chairs, rickshaws, horse-drawn carriages, and pedicabs. Modern taxis eventually took the place of most of these human- and animal-powered forms of transport. The taxicab's earliest ancestors were the hackney carriages of 17th-century Paris and London. Hackney carriages were horse-drawn carriages that provided the residents of Paris and London with private transport for a fee.
In the 1890s, battery-powered vehicles began replacing the animal-powered ones. In 1891, Wilhelm Bruhn in Germany invented a mechanical device called a taximeter that calculated fares based on distance traveled and waiting time. The word "taxicab" is a combination of the words "taximeter" and "cabriolet," the name for a French horse-drawn carriage. These days, "taxi" and "cab" are both commonly used abbreviations.
Gottlieb Daimler invented the first meter-equipped, gas-powered taxi in 1897. The design really took off, and in the early 20th century, taxi companies popped up all over the world. In 1907, New Yorker Henry Allen imported 600 French-made taxicabs, launching the first modern US taxi company. The industry exploded with John Hertz opening Yellow Cab in 1910, and its biggest competitor, Checker Cab, started its operation in the 1920s. Yellow was chosen as the standard color for taxis because it is the color most easily seen from a distance. Checker cabs, painted with a distinctive black-and-white checker band, have become an American icon. Now taxis can be hailed for a lift in almost any city in the world.
历史上有各式各样的出租交通工具，包括轿子、黄包车、四轮马车和三轮车。现代的出租车最终取代大部分人力或用动物拉的交通工具。出租车的雏形是出租马车，最早于 17 世纪出现于巴黎和伦敦。出租马车以马拉动，为巴黎和伦敦居民提供付费的私人交通工具。
19 世纪 90 年代，以电池发动的车辆开始取代以动物为动力的交通工具。1891年，德国人 Wilhelm Bruhn 发明了称作车费码表（taximeter）的机械装置，根据里程数和等待的时间来计算车资。出租车（taxicab）一词由车费码表（taximeter）和一种法国的单马双轮轻便车（cabriolet）这两个词组合而成。如今 taxi 和 cab 都是常用的缩写。
Gottlieb Daimler 于 1897 年发明了第一辆装有码表和以汽油为动力的出租车。这种设计大为成功，20 世纪初出租车公司在世界各地如雨后春笋般出现。1907 年，纽约人亨利·艾伦进口 600 辆法国制的出租车，成立了美国第一家现代出租车公司。这行业在 1910 年约翰‧赫兹开设了 Yellow Cab 公司之后便迅速扩增，它最大的竞争对手 Checker Cab 则于 20 年代开始营运。黄色被选作出租车的标准色，因为这是从远处最容易被瞧见的颜色。Checker 公司的出租车则漆上独特的黑白方格条纹，成为美国的一种标志。现今几乎在任何城市中，只要随手一招，出租车马上就会停在你面前。
Most people spend a sleepless night every now and then. And for most of us, a good night's sleep is all we need to recover. However, one night of tossing and turning is sometimes enough to make us wonder: what would happen if we didn't sleep at all? For those suffering from insomnia, this question is more critical than for others.
Insomnia is a condition in which people have trouble falling asleep or remaining asleep through the night. However, insomnia is distinct from what is simply called poor sleep quality. As a matter of fact, insomnia takes different forms and has various degrees of seriousness. Some people experience insomnia for no more than days at a time. Other bouts of insomnia can last weeks, months, and even years. There are many known causes of insomnia, ranging from hormone shifts to mental disorders. It is believed that insomnia can even result from an overactive mind or from grief. What makes the problem even more difficult to resolve is that it is often caused by multiple factors.
One way to treat insomnia is medication, which many insomniacs might be reluctant to use. In addition to whatever side effects the medicine might have, the user can start to feel as though they need the medication to get to sleep. A more effective approach would often be to actually treat the underlying causes, which in many cases might involve a psychological disorder.
This problem can be very disturbing. One of the things that bother many insomniacs most is lying in bed thinking constantly and never enjoying a break from their own minds. For many of us, whether we are aware of it or not, sleep is not only a rest for our bodies, but an escape from our thoughts.